Indigenous Yoruba and Igala of Delta North(Aniomaland)

Delta state of the Federal Republic of Nigeria is made up of 25 Local Government areas (LGAs) and like every other state, she is represented in the Nigerian Senate by three senators. Delta state is thus carved up into three senatorial districts…Delta Central, Delta South and Delta North (Aniomaland).

Delta Central comprises eight LGAs and is inhabited by the Urhobos while Delta South also comprises eight LGAs and is home to the ethnic Ijaw, Isoko and Itsekiri while Delta North is home to the Ika, Enuani, Ukwuani sub-groups who are spread across nine LGAs.

The principal towns of Delta North are Agbor, Asaba (the Delta state capital),Ogwashi-Uku, Issele-Uku, Ibusa, Ubulu-Uku, Obiaruku,Kwale, Ashaka, among others. Her peoples are predominantly farmers, fisherfolk, businessmen, academics, bureaucrats and members of the defence and security forces. It is on record that at the dawn of Nigerian independence on 1 October 1960, nine(9) of the fifty-eight(58) indigenous commissioned officers of the Nigerian Army were from Delta North alone. Most famous of these was Major Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu who led the first military coup d’etat in Nigeria in 1966.

As of April 2010, the Chief of Defence Staff of the Nigerian Armed Forces and the Comptroller General of the Nigeria Immigration Service both hail from Aniocha North LGA of the said Delta North.

It is also on record that the Ekumeku peasant rebellion against white domination (akin to the Mau Mau rebellion in Kenya) mounted by the people of Delta North under Agbogidi Oligbo, the Issele Uku monarch and against the British colonialists ensured that Aniomaland was arguably the last part of Nigeria to be completely subjugated by the British colonialists! The Ekumeku War spanned the period between 1898 and 1929. Even the Sokoto empire fell in 1903,the defiant people of Delta North were still at the barricades.

Today,the predominant spoken language in the area is a hybridized dialect of Igbo but the people somehow do not refer to themselves Igbo for the simple fact that over eighty-five percent (85%) of Anioma people are said to have emigrated from Bini empire during the 14th and 15th century reigns of Obas(Kings) Ozolua, Ewuare and Esigie of the Benin Empire which lies immediately to the west of Aniomaland. The festivals, language, kingship systems of the people of Delta North appear to bear testimony to this fact even to this day. Possibly, they may have lost their mastery of Edo language on account of long separation from the Benin Empire and became subsumed in the dominant Igbo culture as a result of the fact of greater proximity to Igboland.

But Delta North also has, albeit unbelievably, an indigenous and living community of Yoruba and Igala speakers.

Aniocha North Local Government Area is the smallest, most northerly and most rural in the Delta state. It consists of 16 communities grouped into the three clans of Ezechima, Odiani and Idumuje.

Odiani clan comprises 8 communities which are said to have historically migrated emigrated from the Akoko area of Yorubaland during the wars which raged in that part of pre-colonial Africa during the 18th century. When they arrived at their present place of domicile in the Far North of present-day Delta state, the Edo(Benin) emigres and Ibos from the east of the Niger river had been on ground for a minimum of three centuries. Unable to communicate with the hostile people all around them,they courtesied all and sundry who they came into contact with“Olukumi” ,a word in the Akoko dialect of Yoruba language which means “my friend”.

To this day,the variant of Yoruba language spoken by my people is called Olukumi by neighbouring communities. Further east at Ebu,a migrant community of Igalas who came from central Nigeria in search of prime fishing grounds had developed and to this day,the people of Ebu still speak Igala language.

About beegeagle

BEEG EAGLE -perspectives of an opinionated Nigerian male with a keen interest in Geopolitics, Defence and Strategic Studies
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29 Responses to Indigenous Yoruba and Igala of Delta North(Aniomaland)

  1. Ola says:

    Hello Beegeagle,

    I’ve looked around online for some time for information on the Olukumi people of present-day Delta State but I haven’t had much luck and I’m hoping you can help me. Do you know of any published information on Nigeria’s Olukumi? Have there been any efforts to trace their connection to the Akoko/Ondo-region Yoruba? What is the relationship between Olukumi language and culture and Itsekiri, in your view? Are Olukumi in Nigeria aware of the widespread use of the word in Cuba and Latin America to refer to Yoruba people and culture? Any help that you can offer would be very much appreciated.

  2. Omoluwabi says:

    Olukunmi is the name used in ancient times to describe and identify people who today erroneously call themselves Yoruba especially those who were either citizens of, subjugated or affiliated to Oyo Katunga or Oyo ile. The now popular Yoruba name is a derivation of Hausa insult perpetuated by Saro returnees through their pioneering books. Of the many names these people were called including, Oyo, Anago amongst others Olukunmi stuck in the Caribbean. There is a known link between these people and the Itsekiri, Urhobos especially the Bini. It is also through across the board for example some of the initial kings of the Oyo were Nupe and Borgu in origin. Nigeria is more than a geographic expression but an interdependent mix of people. Ire o!

  3. Arome says:

    Is it “olukumi” or “Onukumi”? Because “Onukumi” means “my friend” in present day Igala language.

    • beegeagle says:

      There has been a general cross-fertilization of cultures and languages in the area spanning Igalaland, Delta North, Edo North, Ondo North and Kogi West. It is easy to see that both words are derived from the same source.

      Where you surprised to learn about the Igala-speaking people of Ebu in Delta North?

      • igweamaka john says:

        i’m from ukala okwute and quiet amaizing i dont know the history of my town.can someone please help me out?

      • samuel says:

        Please i weant to know more about this Igala speaking tribe in delta state, and the communities the occupy.

  4. beegeagle says:

    A Yoruba enclave in the heart of Igboland •
    Story of Ugbodu, others in Delta State

    NIGERIAN TRIBUNE
    Sunday, 24 October 2010
    Written by Banji Aluko

    Deep in the heart of the Igbo-speaking people in Aniocha North Local Government Area of Delta State are Ugbodu and three other communities where Oluku mi, a derivative of Yoruba language, is the language of the people. BANJI ALUKO, who visited the communities, examines how close Oluku mi actually is to the Yoruba language and traces how the people came about the language.

    HELLO, this writer said, while knocking at the door, and a young lady, emerging from the building, replied, ta ni yen? When the writer heard the reply, he taught it was a mere coincidence or that his ears were deceiving him. Of course, he had every reason to be surprised since he was not anywhere near the Yoruba enclave where such a reply can only be anticipated. After all, he was more than 100 kilometres away from the nearest Yoruba community; he was in Ugbodu, a town in Aniocha North Local government Area of Delta State.

    While trying to decipher why the lady gave such a reply, what further followed put the writer in a more confused position. A girl of about five appeared and said, “mo fe ra biscuit.” Perhaps, the people are part of the Yoruba community living in the town, the writer guessed as he tried to find out from the lady.

    “Are you a Yoruba woman; what is the meaning of ta ni yen?” The writer asked the questions at once. Reluctantly, she answered, “I am not Yoruba o, I am just speaking my language.” Apparently, she was not unaware of the similarity between her language and Yoruba language. The lady refused to entertain any further question about her language and asked him to go to the king’s palace or to the elders if he wanted to know more about the language.

    At the palace, the elders still would not talk about the similarity between their language and Yoruba. They asked the writer to wait for the arrival of the king, who they said can only speak on the people, their language and their history.

    The period of waiting for the king afforded one time to listen to the conversation and the discovery was nonetheless remarkable. Following closely the conversation between some elderly men and with a deep knowledge of Yoruba, one could establish a nexus between their speech and actions. In fact, some words and expressions could be understood.

    Following their conversation with rapt attention, expressions such as Gbemu wa—bring palm wine, me wa nani—I didn’t come yesterday, me ri e—I didn’t see you, mu beer oka wa—bring one beer etc could be heard, albeit with an intonation slightly different from that of the Yorubas.

    Seeing the desire of this writer to follow their talk, one man finally volunteered to explain the similarity between their language and Yoruba. “I believe you are a Yoruba man,” he said. He continued: “We are Oluku mi speakers but we speak a language that is very similar to Yoruba.” This he demonstrated by pointing out some words and expressions in their language (Oluku mi) which denote the same meanings as Yoruba.

    He gave some examples such as ita—pepper, ogede lila—plantain, ogede keke—banana; ku wu se—what are you doing; ule house; osa – market; oma—child; o dowuo—see you tomorrow, e bo—welcome. After explaining some similarities between the languages, he still refused to talk about how the people of Ugbodu, in the middle of other Igbo speaking neighbours, came about Oluku mi. Like others, he maintained that only the traditional ruler of the town can speak about how Oluku mi became their language.

    But after waiting endlessly for the king, his brother, Prince Adebowale Ochei, who later arrived the scene, volunteered to speak on behalf of the king, H.R.M. Ayo Isinyemeze, the Oloza (Obi) of Ugbodu. According to him, history gave it that the Ugbodu Oluku mi speaking people migrated from Owo/Akure axis in the present Ondo State between 9th and 11th century AD to settle down in Benin during the reign of King Ogiso of Benin.

    He continued: “At this period in the history of the Benin Kingdom, the most neglected of the wife of the Ogiso gave birth to the heir apparent to the throne. After the woman gave birth to the child, a male, the nobles consulted the oracle and said that the oracle told them that the child should be killed for peace to reign in Benin Kingdom. At the end, the child was not killed as it was said that the child was too handsome to be killed, so a fowl was killed in his place.”

    According to Ochei, this was the reason the Ugbodu people left Benin. “They felt that if a crown prince could be ordered for execution just like that, they could do worse things to strangers in their midst. As a result, they left Benin and came to Ewohimi, an Ishan speaking community in Edo State. Due to intra-tribal wars, they later left the place to settle down here in Ugbodu which is a shortened form of Ugbodumila, which means bush saved me in English Language.”

    He further pointed out differences between Oluku mi and Yoruba. He said one notable difference is the changing of letter “j” in Yoruba words to “s” in Oluku mi as seen in words like oloja or oja which are rendered as olosa or osa and joko as soko.

    With the movement of the people was the consequent change in their language as shown in their names. According to records compiled by Prince Humphrey Ojeabu Ochei, the immediate Olihen of Ugbodu, the first six Olozas bore Yoruba names namely Adeola, Aderemi, Ariyo, Odofin, Adetunji and Oyetunde. These early kings bore typical Yoruba names years and decades after the establishment of the Ugbodu Kingdom.

    As the people gradually lost contact with their kinsmen back home, they began to gravitate towards the Benin and Edo communities. The resulting acculturative process gradually led to the adoption of Edo names among the people. Hence names such as Ogbomon, Ozolua, Izebuwa, Ogbelaka, Izedonwen, Osakpolor, Esigie Igbinadolor, Osaloua, Osamewamen and Ebor emerged as Olozas.

    Since Ugbodu is surrounded by the Igbo-speaking Aniomas, it did not take much time before the Igbo Language started to interfere greatly on the people’s language. Accordingly, Igbo influence steadily and progressively made what has now become permanent inroad and considerable impact on the socio-cultural life as well as linguistic orientation of the Ugbodu people. With this, the Edo influence began to wane, resulting in the adoption of Igbo names in preference to Edo names. Thus from the middle of the 19th century, the general shift was from Edo to Igbo names. This can be seen in the names of Olozas, who ruled between the middle of the 19th century and late 20th century such as Dike, Ochei, Ezenweani and Isinyemeze.

    Investigations conducted revealed that Ugbodu is not the only community where Oluku mi is spoken in Aniocha North Local Government as the language is also spoken in Ukwu-Nzu (Eko Efun), Ubulubu and Ogodo.

    At Ukwu-Nzu, only few kilometres away from Ugbodu, the language is not also different. Although, the people are less emphatic about their history, nonetheless, the similarity between their language and Yoruba is evident in their names and greetings. “Oju e ma won ke,” meaning your face is scarce in Yoruba, was what a man said to his friend he accosted on the road. When Sunday Tribune approached the man, who gave his name as Ayo Oke, he shed light on his language and provided more examples between Oluku mi and Yoruba Language.

    He said that “instead of saying e kaabo, we say e bo, meaning welcome and wa ni we yi, meaning come here;” He also gave example of words which virtually have the same meanings as the Yoruba language. Some of these include obe—stew; oni—today; ola—tomorrow; otunla—next tomorrow etc.

    Another elder in the town, who spoke with Sunday Tribune, said that the name of Ukwu-Nzu before the Igbo Language “infiltrated” their language was Eko Efun (efun means chalk in Yoruba Language). He also attributed the efun in the name of their town to the rich prescence of white chalk in the town which he said the community was richly blessed with.

    Presently, the biggest challenge for the people of Ugbodu and other Oluku mi-speaking communities is how to protect their language and culture in general. According to a native of Ugbodu, “the elders are more connected to the original Olukumi language than the youth. In fact, we have lost the real Oluku mi and what we have now is an Oluku mi that has been greatly altered by Igbo language. Most of the people who can really speak the language right now are the elders. Ordinarily, the real Oluku mi is like the Yoruba that is spoken in Owo in Ondo State. Someone from that place is expected to understand the language perfectly but right now someone from Owo might not be able to understand more than 50 per cent of our language. This language may die if care is not taken,” he said.

    Another factor that also contributed to the decline of Olukumi, according to findings, is that there was a time in the past when an understanding of the Edo or Igbo language, was considered as a status symbol. According to an elder in the town, “An Oluku mi who spoke the two languages then was considered superior to others because it meant that he had travelled wide. This was the inferiority complex our people unwittingly created for themselves which we are trying to correct now.”

    In protecting their language which is gradually being threatened, a revival process has been started. Part of this is that some of them now choose to give their children Oluku mi names and to sing and say prayers in Oluku mi. In some cases, some radical reformers and revivalists changed the names given to them by their parents from Igbo to Olukumi. The climax of the restoration process of their linguistic ethos and identity was the christening of the incumbent Oloza with an Olukumi name, Ayo.

    Reacting to efforts aimed at protecting Oluku mi, Prince Adebowale said, “I am an Oluku mi man and I am proud of my language. I am not happy that Igbo language is interfering with our language. We are trying our best to correct the situation and part of that is what my brother (the Oloza) is doing by organising an Oluku mi reciting competition. We want to know the people who can speak the real Oluku mi without mixing it with Igbo or English.” As laudable as the task of protecting Oluku mi by the people of Ugbodu(mila) is, only time will tell how far they can go.

    • prospektart says:

      This is an interesting article, I would agree with the links with Owo Yoruba and with Itsekiri. Both Itsekiri and the Owo dialect are very closely related and both groups are the closest Yoruba speaking areas to Olukun mi land, therefore the purer version of the language would probably resemble Itsekiri and Owo, that is not to say that the Olukunmi people are Itsekiri or Owo, it is just that they speak closely related languages. interesting to also note that the Itsekiri’s despite their relationship to the Yoruba’s do not consider themselves Yoruba per se but acknowledge their close kinship to Yoruba. This is due to the fact that over the centuries the itsekiris have developed a completely independent culture and polity of their own, to the point that generic Yoruba names and surnames are never taken by Itsekiris. The Olukunmi’s on the other hand may have migrated to their present lands at a time when the term Yoruba was not in use to describe the Yoruba people. Please note that the word ‘Yoruba’ is a derivative from the Hausa Yarbawa which was the term used by the Hausas to describe the Yorubas. There was no generic term to describe the Yoruba ethnicity up to the late 19th century, the terms Nago and Olukunmi were used to describe people of Yoruba descent in the new world, so it is possible that at the time the Olukumi’s migrated to Anioma land they term Yoruba was not in use, hence their inability or reluctance to identify as Yoruba. Likewise, the Itsekiri’s do not use the term ‘Yoruba’ to describe the Yoruba people and language, instead the Itsekiris refer to the Yorubas as ‘Ira Oke’ which equates to ‘Ara Oke’ in the Yoruba language meaning people of the highland (Northern Yoruba land). The absence of the term Yoruba from Itsekiri and the Olukumi’s lack of identification with the Yoruba people suggest that the term ‘Yoruba’ is indeed a recent and non-native appellation which the Yoruba’s adopted from the Hausa following the Fulani conquest of the Northernmost part of Yoruba land.

  5. Isinyemeze says:

    am an olukumi girl. there is no link between the itsekiris and the olukumis.
    its a totally different language altogether. i believe my cousin adebowale interviewed by the tribune discussed the origin of the olukumi’s

    • prospektart says:

      This is not true, there is a known link between the Itsekiris and Olukunmis. The word olukunmi is actually Itsekiri for friend. The Olukunmi words described in the article above bears a close resemblance to Itsekiri. You may not like it or agree but the fact is that from a linguistic standpoint the Olukunmi dialect is also closely related to the Itsekiri language branch of Yoruba. Just because the Olukunmi is related to the Itsekiri does not automatically mean that it gives the Itsekiri a stake in Anioma land, so people should divorce ethnocentric-emotionalism from what is essentially an anthropoligical and historical fact.

  6. Tryingtofindmyroots says:

    Hello,
    I am so glad (ecstatic to be exact) that I stumbled on this site. My father is from Ugbodu, and my mom is Imo. I know next to nothing about my Olukumi heritage. Except that we are not a ‘tribe’ per say and that we fled from Owo to Delta and all. I keep trying to get my dad to teach me the language, because I don’t want it to get lost in my dominant igbo heritage.

    I have only met one Yoruba person who understands Olukumi, because he says his grandma spoke it to him a lot. THANK YOU for this!

  7. John says:

    Olukumi which is a variant of ‘Onukumi’ is an Igala name for ‘my friend’ which is the true menaing of the name in Ebu (Igala) language. So in essence the Olukumi’s are the Igalas in Ebu, Delta state. It is tradidition in Igala to identify the different sub-Igala groups by the names they call ‘friends’, for instance the Ibaji’s are called ‘iyo’ meaning ‘friend’. The Idah and some other Igalas are called ‘Akpai’ again meaning ‘my friend’. The examples are endless. So it is exactly correct and true that the Ebu’s are called ‘olukumi’.

    • beegeagle says:

      John, there are the Olukumi(Yoruba descendants) in Aniocha North LGA as distinct from the Igala descendants of Ebu in Oshimili North LGA. The Igala of Ebu are not however known as “Onukumi” or “Olukumi”

      The words “Onukumi” in Igala language and “Olukumi” in the Owo-Akoko axis of Yorubaland mean the same thing – my friend!

      Moving on, there also appears to be some connection between Igala Kingdom and at least some parts of ONICHA OLONA(Aniocha North LGA) where the progenitors of the Umuolo Quarters are reputed to have been a certain Obaje and Olo! That union between Obaje and Olo is said to also account for the ancestral roots of the Umuolo Quarters of ONICHA UGBO, a town which is located about ten miles to the south-west of Onicha Olona.

      Onicha Olona is about twenty miles distant from Ebu, the Igala disaporan town in Delta State while Onicha Ugbo is situated about thirty miles away from Ebu, a town in Oshimili North LGA of Delta State.

  8. sabawaleklazik says:

    i did my national youth service corp in aniocha north. And i was astounded when i heard d language. It was 70% yoruba. But most of dem neva care about there history or why they speak d language. Welldone 4 d research anyway. But mind u ‘olukumi’ is not ‘my friend’, it means ‘the person that remains with me’ dat means either the first person is a refugee, or faces and advesary, and tries to rally there remaining persons to his side the full is ‘eni t’oku pelumi’ or ‘olukupelumi’. Thanks y’all.

  9. Emmanuel Uneku onuche says:

    Just got to know that they are Igalas in Delta State.
    What surprise me most is that I have not seen any Igala claiming indigenship of Delta State, does it mean they claim Kogi State becouse they speak Igala.

  10. Nwa daddy says:

    Very interesting stuff.
    I’ve a deep interest in Anioma communities, my ancestor (Anum Ogoli) came from present day Oko in Oshimili North (next to the river Niger in Delta state) and moved deep into Anambra. This was around the late 1600s, but most people from our village dont pay attention to the history. I only know cause my dad is a passionate historian and taught me as a kid, our village was named after him

  11. Political analysts and commentators need to read this story and similar ones.NIGERIA is not an imposition by the colonialists.

  12. Awai Kwaghga Gbughul says:

    I am currently carrying out a study about the Ukwu-Nzu Ulukumi. I hope much will be clarified as I conclude my study and publish it in book form before January 2012 ending. The study also touches Ogbodu and Ubulubu who speak Ulukumi as well. Link up for more details through this email: awaiy@rocketmail.com

  13. WantsToHelp says:

    The term Yoruba as a cultural designation dates only to mid-nineteenth century colonialism (Law, 1977, p.5). The more ancient designation ‘Lukumi— was and is still used by the Yoruba and their descendents in Cuba. H. U. Beier states,”We find it (Olukumi—-my friend) on several ancient maps of West Africa where the kingdom of Ulcumi or Lucumi or Ulcami is shown to the north-west of the kingdom of Benin (map). It appears that this was the name under which the early travellers knew the Yoruba kingdom. It is quite well known, of course, that the term Yoruba has only of late been used as the common denomination for the Oyo, Egba, Ijebu, Ekiti, etc., as the result of the efforts of the Anglican mission in Abeokuta to create a written language based on the Oyo dialect (Beier, 1958, pp.238-40).” It appears clear from travellers reporting in the mid-seventeenth century that the lingua franca of the Aja of Dahomey and Nigeria was ‘Lukumi — which is undoubtedly the Yoruba language (Ajayi, 1976, p.373).
    The word lukumí, according to Chris Lee, an initiated priest of Oshun in the Orisha tradition of the Caribbean, “is one whose origins have never been defined for sure, but there are at least two known references: The first is the Yoruba word the slaves used to identify friends “Olukun mi” and the second one is to the name with which the Yoruba region was known “Ulcuim or Ulcumi”.
    For more elightenment on the Olukumis, hit these links:
    http://www.llewellyn.com/encyclopedia/article/20867
    http://www.blackplanet.com/SINFO/

  14. Ibfolan says:

    I love history of delta state

  15. Ugo says:

    Ebu is indeed an Igala tribe in Delta State. If you want detail history of this tribe, get a copy of this book “Ebu Its People, Language and Culture” by Chief Philip Ogbeide Etemah.

  16. oma says:

    please i would like to know the origin and migration of ebu

  17. yemi says:

    how do i get this book pls? i live in Lagos-Ebu Its People, Language and Culture” by Chief Philip Ogbeide Etemah.

  18. Dandy says:

    Shock horror! Isinyemeze says Itsekiri is a totally different language to Olukunmi? Why are Nigerians so narrow minded and small minded? For your information Isinyemeze and everyone else the word for “my friend” in Itsekiri is ‘Olukunmi’. Itsekiri is closely related to Yoruba and Igala and its closest relatives among Yoruba dialects are Owo, Ondo Ilaje and Ijebu dialects and consequently the Olukunmi dialect of Aniocha North is closely related to Itsekiri, Yoruba and Igala. Like Olukunmi, Itsekiri remained isolated from the main body of Yoruba speakers and so formed its own independent culture. Like Olukunmi and every other language in the area including Yoruba and Igbo, Itsekiri has also been heavily influenced by the Bini Empire. Please read up scholarly articles in Wikipedia on Itsekiri, Yoruba and Igala before jumping to the wrong conclusions about a language. Isinyemeze drop your prejudices and listen and compare your language to Itsekiri and you will find many similarities!

  19. Dandy says:

    Interesting comment on the term ‘Yoruba’. I totally agree, the word Yoruba is a corruption of yarbawa a derogatory term imposed on Yoruba by the Hausas and which the Yoruba have unfortunately adopted as the term for their ethnicity. Strange as it seems, the Itsekiris do not refer to the Yoruba as Yoruba, instead they refer to each of the Yoruba sub groups by their names e.g. Owo = Irowo, Ondo = Ir’ondo. ‘ira’ in Itsekiri meaning ‘ara’ in Yoruba e.g. ‘ara oke’ a term in Yoruba used to refer to Northern Yoruba from Oyo upwards. Incidentally the the standard Yoruba language is called ‘Iroke’ or Ira Oke in Itsekiri, meaning language of the people of the highlands or hinterland. This more or less reflects the fact that standard Yoruba is based on the Oyo dialect and Itsekiris unconsciously regarded it as a separate dialect from other Yoruba dialects. It also demonstrates that there was no unified term for the Yoruba dialects and that each dialect went by its own distinct name before the term ‘Yoruba’ was adopted and adapted in the late 19th century as the common name for all the related ‘Yoruba’ dialects. By this time the Itsekiris had evolved into an independent entity over 600 Years and so did not identify with the Yoruba appellation. This also explains why people of Yoruba descent in Brazil, Cuba and South America do not use the term Yoruba to describe themselves as the term did not exist before or during the slave era. instead they refer to themselves as Anago or Lucumi Which is a variant of Olukunmi. Same applies to the Olukunmi in Aniocha North. its a simple care of historical evolution due to isolation from the changes that have taken place in the main body of today’s Yoruba speaking people.

  20. beegeagle says:

    Annie, Idumuogo is part of Odiani clan. So are Ugbodu, Ukwunzu, Ubulubu, Ugboba, Anioma and Ogodo.

    Olukumi is most intensively spoken at Ugbodu and Ukwunzu. It is also spoken at Ubulubu.

    Many a first-time visitor to Aniocha North LGA gets surprised to learn that the Yoruboid folk encountered, Olukumi speakers all, beginning from the LG headquarters that is Issele Uku where many of them are domiciled, are actually indigenous to the local government rather than being members of a settler community from Western Nigeria.

  21. I wish to notify all commentators on this subject matter that I hsve written a book about the Olukumi speakers in the West of Niger, Nigeria. The book is title: A CULTURAL HISTORY OF THE UKWU-NZU PEOPLE AMONG THE WEST-NIGER IGBO. The book discussed in brief the ODIANI group with concern on Ukwunzu, Ugbodu amd Ubulubu communities. The book is written following extensive RESEARCH conducted in Ukwunzu in particular and neighbouring communities. The book is published and plans on way to post it online. Thanks for sharing together.

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